Glossary

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Term Definition
Access Point

An access point provides wireless access to a network. Devices connected to an access point can communicate with other devices on the network. They may also connect to the Internet if the access point is linked to an Internet connection, which is commonly the case.

Active Directory

Active Directory is a Windows term for the overall directory database in a Windows domain. The AD, or Active Directory, contains the user accounts, computer accounts, OUs, security groups, group policy objects, and any other LDAP based directory object

ADSL

Stands for "Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line." ADSL is a type of DSL, which is a method of transferring data over copper telephone lines. While symmetrical DSL (SDSL) uploads and downloads data at the same speed, ADSL has different maximum data transfer rates for uploading and downloading data.

API

"Application Program Interface," though it is sometimes referred to as an "Application Programming Interface." An API is a set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when building software for a specific operating system. The API allows programmers to use predefined functions to interact with the operating system, instead of writing them from scratch.

ASCII

Stands for "American Standard Code for Information Interchange." ASCII character encoding provides a standard way to represent characters using numeric codes. These include upper and lower-case English letters, numbers, and punctuation symbols.

Bandwidth

A measurement of the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network at any time. The higher the network's bandwidth, the more volume of data can be transmitted. 

Bluetooth

This wireless technology enables communication between Bluetooth compatible devices. It is used for short-range connections between desktop and laptop computers, PDAs , digital cameras, scanners, Mobile phones, and printers.

Bounce

The common name for an e-mail message when it is returned to you as undeliverable

BYOD

Bring Your Own Device or "BYOD" is a business and technology policy that allows employees to bring in personal mobile devices and use these devices to access company data, email, etc.

CPU

Central processing unit; the part of a computer that oversees all operations and calculations.

CSP

Cloud Service Provider, a business model for providing cloud services

CSS

Cascading Style Sheet, A set of rules that define how web pages are displayed

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, a protocol that lets a server on a local network assign temporary IP addresses to a computer or other network devices.

DIMM

Dual In-line Memory Module, a small circuit board that can hold a group of memory chips. A DIMM is capable of transferring 64 bits instead of the 32 bits each SIMM can handle.

DNS

Domain Name System, a service for accessing a networked computer by name rather than by numerical, (IP) address.

DPI

Dots per inch, a measure of a printer's resolution. The higher the number, the better the print quality. A minimum of 300 dpi usually is required for professional quality printing. 

DRaaS

Disaster Recovery as a Service; a service that helps recover data in the event of a server failure or natural disaster

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line, an always on broadband connection over standard phone lines. 

Hypervisor

A Hypervisor, also called virtual machine manager (VMM), is one of many hardware virtualization techniques that allow multiple operating systems, termed guests, to run concurrently on a host computer. It is so named because it is conceptually one level higher than a supervisory program.

IEEE 1394 port

An interface for attaching high-speed serial devices to your computer

IP address

Internet Protocol address, every computer connected to the Internet has a unique identifying number. Example: 192.168.0.2.

ISP

Internet Service Provider, an organization or company that provides Internet connectivity.

K

An abbreviation for kilobyte; it contains 1,024 bytes; in turn 1,024 kilobytes is equal to one megabyte.

Kbps

Kilobits per second, a measure of data transfer speed; one Kbps is 1,000 bits per second

LAN

Local area network; a network that extends over a small area. Connects a group of computers for the purpose of sharing resources such as programs, documents, or printers.

MAC

Media Access Control, The hardware address of a device connected to a shared network. 

Malware

Software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer; common examples of malware include viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware.

MSP

Managed Service Provider, A business model for providing information-technology services

NAT

Network Address Translation, a standard that enables a LAN to use a set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a single IP address for communications with the Internet

WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network, the computers and devices that make up a wireless network.

World Wide Web

A hypertext based system of servers on the Internet. Hypertext is data that contains one or more links to other data; a link can point to many different types of resources including text, graphics, sound, animated files, a network newsgroup, a telnet session, an FTP session, or another web server. You use a special program called a "browser" (e.g., Firefox or Internet Explorer) for viewing World Wide Web pages. Also referred to as "WWW" or "the web". 

WWW

An abbreviation for World Wide Web

XML

Extensible Markup Language, A markup language for coding web documents that allows designers to create their own customized tags for structuring a page.

Zero Day

zero-day  attack, threat or virus is a computer threat that tries to exploit computer application vulnerabilities that are unknown to others or the software developer, also called zero-day vulnerabilities. Zero-day exploits  are used or shared by attackers before the developer of the target software knows about the vulnerability.

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